Senin, 18 April 2011

Golongan-golongan antibiotik dan cara kerjanya


Antibiotic groups
Antibiotic groups
Mode of action
examples
Aminoglycosides
Irreversible inhibition of protein synthesis by binding to reseptors on the 30S subunits of bacterial ribosome
Amikacin, Gentanicin, Kanamycin, Neomycin, Netilmicin, Streptomycin, Tobramycin
Carbacephem
Inhibit synthesis of peptidoglycan causing osmotic lysis
Loracerbef
Carbapenems
Inhibit synthesis of peptidoglycan causing osmotic lysis; resistant to β-lactamase & has a wide spectrum of activity
Ertapenem, Imipenem, Meropenem
Cephalosporin
Bind to penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) of bacteria; inhibit bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis & activate bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes
Cefaclor, Cefadroxil, Cefalexin, Cefamandole, Cefapirin, Cefazolin, Cefdinir, Cefditoren, Cefepim, Cefetamet pivoxil, Cefixime, Cefmenoxime, Cefminox, Cefodizime, Cefonicid, Cefoperazone, Cefotaxime, Cefotetan, Cefotiam, cefoxitin, Cefpirome, Cefpodoxime, Cefprozil, Cefradine, Cefsulodin, Ceftazidime, Ceftezole, Ceftibuten, Ceftizoxime, Ceftriaxone, Cefuroxime
Chloramphenicol
Bind reversibly to a reseptor site on the 50S subunit of bacterial ribosome
Chloramphenicol
Glycopeptide
Prevent further elongation & cros-linking of bacterial peptidoglycan synthesis; active against gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococci
Vancomycin, Teicoplanin
Colycylcycline
Bind reversibly to receptors on the 30S subunit  of bacterial ribosome inhibiting protein synthesis
Tigecycline
Lincosamide
Inhibit protein synthesis by interfering w/ initiation complexes & translocation reactions on the bacterial 50S subunit
Clindamycin, Lincomycin
Ketolides
Inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by reversible binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit
Telithromycin
Macrolide
Inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by reversible binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit
Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, Dirithromycin, Erythromycin, Midecamycin, Roxithromycin, Spiramycin, Troleandromycin
Monobactam
Inhibit synthesis of peptidoglycan causing osmotic lysis; resistant to β-lactamases & active against gram-negative rods
Aztreonam
Nitroflurantoin
Block aerobic energy production & synthesis of protein, DNA, RNA, & cell walls
Nitrofluratoin
Oxazolidinones
Cause faulty bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit
Linezolid
Penicillins
Inhibit synthesis of peptidoglycan causing osmotic lysis
Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, Bacampicillin, Carbenicillin, Cloxacillin, Dicloxacillin, Methicillin, Mezlocillin, Penicillin G, Penicillin V, Piperacillin, Ticarcillin
Penicillins w/ β-lactamase inhibitors
Bind to Penicillin-binding protein (PBP) of bacteria; inhibit bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis & activate bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes
Amoxicillin + Clavulanate, Ampicillin + Sulbactam, Ticarcillin + Clavulanate, Piperacillin +Tazobactam
Polymixins
Alter cytoplasmic membrane causing cellular leakage
Polymyxin B
Quinolones
Inhibit topoisomerases that are essential for bacterial DNA replication and transcription; inhibit DNA gyrase
Cyprofloxacin, Enoxacin, Levofloxacin, Lomefloxacin, Moxifloxacin,Nalidixic acid, Norfloxacin, Ofloxacin, Pazufloxacin, Rufloxacin, Trovafloxacin
Streptogramins
Cause faulty bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit
Quinupristin + Dalfopristin
Sulphonamides
Competitive inhibition of folic acid synthesis by acting as structural analogue of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA)
Sulfisoxazole, Sulfamethoxazole, Sulfamethizole, Sulfasalazine
Tetracyclines
Bind reversibly to receptors on the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome inhibiting protein synthesis
Chlortetracycline, Demeclocycline, Doxycycline, Lymecycline, Minocycline, Oxytetracycline, Tetracycline
Trimethoprim
Inhibits dihydrofolic acid reductase of bacteria & blocks metabolic sequences in DNA synthesis
Trimethoprim
Tyrocidin
Alter cytoplasmic membrane causing cellular leakage
Tyrocidine, Gramicidin

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